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When first outlining his materialist conception of history, Marx made what initially seems an offhand and parenthetical comment; he noted that “the first fact to be established for the study of history is the corporeal organization of human beings and their consequent relation to the rest of nature.” 8 Unfortunately, he never systematically elaborated why human corporeal organization should be considered the “first fact” of history. But this striking statement is, in my view, perhaps the single most insightful comment he ever made—and certainly the one with the most far-reaching implications. For it condenses in one sentence both what Marx alluded to as his Aufhebung (transcendence, sublation) of philosophy and also the fundamental principle of a materialist conception of history. Though Sigmund Freud excluded it from his list of mind-shattering Copernican revolutions in Western intellectual history that displaced humans from the center of the universe (which he limited to Copernicus, Darwin and, modestly, himself), I agree with Michel Foucault that Marx belongs among the major initiators of the project of decentering the subject. I contend further that Marx’s positing of human corporeal organization as the first fact of human history amounts to a Copernican upheaval—precisely because, as I shall explain below, it is the human complement to Darwin’s approach to animal organisms in general.

The Copernican dimensions of Marx’s historical materialism lay in the corporeal challenge that it posed both to the Western philosophical tradition and to itself. The immensity of that challenge is best conveyed by Terry Eagleton’s summary of Marx’s project: “What if an idea of reason could be generated up from the body itself, rather than the body incorporated into a reason which is always already in place? What if it were possible, in a breathtaking wager, to retrace one’s steps and reconstruct everything—ethics, history, politics, rationality—from a bodily foundation?” 9 At first glance, “breathtaking” seems a polite understatement for this wager, and “audacious” or “foolhardy” more appropriate. For, in addition to the breathtaking immensity of the project, the attempt to rethink “everything” from a “bodily foundation” is, as Eagleton warns, necessarily

fraught with perils: how could it safeguard itself from naturalism, biologism, sensuous empiricism, from a mechanical materialism or false transcendentalism of the body every bit as disabling as the ideologies it seeks to oppose? How can the human body, itself in part a product of history, be taken as history’s source? Does not the body in such an enterprise become simply another privileged anteriority, spuriously self-grounding? 10

Marx did not win this wager, of course. But his failure to win was not, in my view, a result of having succumbed to any of the perils Eagleton noted. I would argue that he navigated successfully between the traps of false universalism and arbitrary eclecticism. His failure to win resulted rather from the monumentality of his wager, which was, and remains, a wager that no single individual could possibly win. Marx himself did little more than scratch the surface, but he did so in extremely suggestive, paradigmatic ways. The Copernican significance of his attempt to ground human history in human corporeal organization is best illuminated by situating his materialist conception of history in contrast to traditional philosophy’s idealist anthropology and in relation to Darwin’s materialist conception of natural history.

4. "Fungi." Microbiology Online. Microbiology Society, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2016.

5. Tortora, G.J., Funke, B.R., Case, C.L. (2012). “Microbiology an Introduction.” 11th ed. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.

6. Rizzo, D. “Intro to Fungi.” Hutchinson Hall UC Davis, Davis. 28 Sept. 2015. Lecture.

7. Rizzo, D. “Ascomycota Part I.” Hutchinson Hall UC Davis, Davis. 28 Sept. 2015. Lecture.

8. Rizzo, D. “Basidiomycota Part I.” Hutchinson Hall UC Davis, Davis. 28 Sept. 2015. Lecture.

9. Pegg G.F., Brady B.L. “Verticillium Wilts.” New York, CABI Publishing 2002. Google Books. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. adidas Originals Mens Alphabounce Em u Running Shoe Grey/Black/White sale very cheap buy cheap fast delivery ebay online 0hHcJ16N4

10. Hebert, Paul. "What Is a Protist / What Are Protozoa? - Encyclopedia of Life." Encyclopedia of Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. http://eol.org/info/456

11. "MicrobeWorld." Protista. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. http://www.microbeworld.org/types-of-microbes/protista

12. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. (2006). Brock Biology of Microorganisms. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

13. Roesch, L.F., Fulthorpe, R. R., Riva, A., Casella, G., Hadwin, A. K. M., Kent, A. D., Daroub, S. H.; Camargo, F. A. O.; Farmerie, W. G.; Triplett, E. W.(2007). Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity. ISME Journal, 1(4).283-290.

14. Amann, R.I, Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K.H.(1995).Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 59(1). 143-169.

15. Geers, D., Cohan, F.M., Lawrence J.G., Spratt, B.G., Coenye, T. Feil, E.J., Stackebrandt, E., Van de Peer, Y., Vandamme, P., Thompson, F.L., Swings, J. (2005). Opinion: Re-evaluating prokaryotic species. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3(9). 733-739.

16. Patzelt, D.J., Hodac, L., Friedl, T., Pietrasiak, N., Johansen, J.R. (2014). Biodiversity of soil cyanobacteria in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Chile. Journal of phycology. 50(4). 698-710.

17. Makhalanyane, T. P., Valverde, A., Velázquez, D., Gunnigle, E., Van Goethem, M. W., Quesada, A., Cowan, D. A. (2015). Ecology and biogeochemistry of cyanobacteria in soils, permafrost, aquatic and cryptic polar habitats. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24(4), 819-840.

18. Corliss, John. "Protist | Biology." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2016. < adidas Supernova ST Womens Running Shoes AW17 Grey cheap price low shipping fee buy cheap store M1TlNfK
>.

19. Ekelund, Flemming; Saj, Stephane; Vestergård, Mette; Bertaux, Joanne; Mikola, Juha. (2009). “The “soil microbial loop” is not always needed to explain protozoan stimulation of plants”. Soil Biology Biochemistry. Vol. 41 Issue 11, p2336-2342, 7p.

20. Bonkowski, Michael. "Protozoa and Plant Growth: The Microbial Loop in Soil Revisited." New Phytologist New Phytol 162.3 (2004): 617-31. Web.

21. Hoorman, James. "The Role of Soil Protozoa and Nematodes." Fact Sheet (n.d.): n. pag. Ohio State University, 2011. Web.

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Insights from the UK’s Central Laser Facility

The Science and Technology Facilities Council’s Central Laser Facility (CLF) has been lighting the way for laser research, development, exploitation and training for the past 40 years.

Now, its lasers are in use at facilities around the world and its expertise is recognised around the globe. Below, we take a closer look at the CLF and find out what ittakes to stay on top.

First though, how do lasers work? What do they do and how have they changed since their invention? Find out by watching these short videos:

(Credit: STFC)

(Credit: STFC)

(Credit: STFC)

Find out more about the CLF’s incredible journey to become one of the world’s leading laser science facilities.

One place to begin is with record-breaking technology. At the start of 2017 came the news that the CLF’s DiPOLE 100 laser, delivered under contract to the Czech Republic’s HiLASE centre,officially became the most powerful laser of its kind in the world. The laser delivers up toten pulses per second (with 100 joules per pulse at 1kw), and is the first to combine both high energy levels and a significant number of pulses per second.

There are a range of potential uses for this technology,including new medical applications, imaging capabilities and processing novel materials. The CLF is even building a DiPOLE100 laser for the European XFEL, where it will be used to recreate the conditions found within stars.

“Throughout the life and history of the CLF, we have aimed to not just be world-class but world-leading,” says Dave Pepler, who first joined the CLF in 1978. “We’ve always been pushed by the requirements of the users who are proposing experiments to have more energy, shorter pulses, bigger beams andhigher focal spots."

The CLF has no plans to rest on its laurels just yet. The team, led by Director John Collier, has an ambitious science programme planned for the upcoming years that will to continue to push the boundaries of laser science into new territory.

Some of the projects being explored involve using lasers to create mass from light and developing uses for laser-based accelerators in sectors such as medicine, aerospace, nuclear, security and defence.

Find out more about the different potential uses for lasers here:

(Credit: STFC)

Further collaboration, this time with other facilities on the Harwell Campus, may also see the CLF providing deeper insights into biological, medical and materials science. By working with the Research Complex at Harwell, Diamond Light Source, and The Rosalind Franklin Institute, the CLF can contribute to the establishment of a world-leading centre for multimodal imaging.

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